Alexander MUNRO

Alexander MUNRO

Male 1736 - 1807

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  • Name  Alexander MUNRO  [1, 2
    Born  20 Aug 1736  Inverness, , Inverness, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Gender  Male 
    Died  5 Sep 1807  Minot, Androscoggin Co., Maine, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Buried  Auburn, Androscoggin Co., Maine, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    • Alexander was buried at the Dillingham Cemetery in North Auburn, Maine.
    Person ID  I115  Munro
    Last Modified  17 Sep 2010 

    Father  James MUNRO,   b. Est 1711,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Mother  Margaret LINDSAY,   b. Abt 1713,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Family ID  F12312  Group Sheet

    Family 1  Mary MCINTOSH,   b. 1734, Inverness, , Inverness, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Mar 1774, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married  1763  Boston, Suffolk Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • Mitchell's "History of Bridgewater" states that Alexander married Mary Mackintosh (spelling of McIntosh?) in Scotland and that their first child, Nancy, was born in Scotland. [3]
     1. Nancy MUNRO,   b. Est 1764, , , , Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Nov 1815
     2. John MUNRO,   b. Est 1766,   d. Yes, date unknown
     3. Elizabeth MUNRO,   b. 1769, Boston, Suffolk Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 3 May 1837, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
    >4. Mary MUNRO,   b. 10 Mar 1771, Boston, Suffolk Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Sep 1821, Winchester Center, Litchfield Co., Connecticut, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  17 Sep 2010 
    Family ID  F58  Group Sheet

    Family 2  Mary HUTCHINSON,   b. Abt 1752, , , , Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Jul 1835 
    Married  25 Jun 1776  Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    >1. David MUNRO,   b. 16 Mar 1777, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Mar 1827, Minot, Androscoggin Co., Maine, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
     2. Jennet MUNRO,   b. 14 Mar 1779, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     3. William Alexander MUNRO,   b. 15 Jul 1781, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Aug 1784, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
    >4. Eunice MUNRO,   b. 7 Aug 1785, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
    >5. Jane MUNRO,   b. 15 Jun 1788, Bridgewater, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 9 Dec 1852, Winchester Center, Litchfield Co., Connecticut, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  20 Jan 2009 
    Family ID  F2185  Group Sheet

  • Notes 
    • There is a question as to the identity of Alexander's wives. Ref 1 says he married (1) Mary McIntosh and (2) Mary Hutchinson. Ref 2 says he married (1) Ann Pattern and (2) Mary Hutchinson. Each reference attributes the same children to its respective first wife. It is believed that the Ann Pattern marriage is an error.

      Alexander was recruited as Ensign, in Inverness, Scotland, on 21 Sep 1758 in the 77th Foot, Colonel Montgomery's Regiment, under the direction of General Wolfe. He was sent to America in late 1758 or spring 1759 and served in the war between England and France for about 8 years. There is a report of his participation in the siege of Louisbourg.

      He was Commissary to General Wolfe in the battle of Quebec, and was in the same boat with General Wolfe as the British approached Quebec. He is said to have heard the famous challenge of the French sentry. He accompanied the General in the attack at the Plains of Abraham and was with the General when he fell. He was one of the three who first lifted the wounded officer from the field. Tradition has it that he heard the last words uttered by General Wolfe, "Then I die in peace". A painting of the death of General Wolfe hangs at Fort Ticonderoga in which Alexander is shown supporting Wolfe's body after he was shot. (Some historians dispute the accuracy of the facts in this paragraph, and in fact, it may just be an exaggerated family legend.) Alexander was one of only six members of his company that was left alive in that conflict although he was severely wounded. He continued to serve in the army until 1768, at which time he declared that he was 32 years old.

      He moved to Bridgewater, Massachusetts before the death of his first wife, and lived on a farm, but owned no property. He is listed on the Tax Roll of 1771 in Bridgewater, Massachusetts where he was living with two men (one over 16 and one under 16). Both ref 1 and ref 2 say his first wife died in 1774 but they differ as to her identity.

      In 1776 Alexander married Mary Hutchinson, the granddaughter of John Hutchinson of Bristol, Rhode Island. They lived in East Bridgewater, Plymouth County, Massachusetts.

      Alexander served intermittently during the Revolutionary War. He served as a private in Capt. Kingman's Co., Col Mitchell's Reg't during a 16-day alarm to Providence, Rhode Island in Dec. 1776. He also served as a sergeant in Capt. Snow's Co., Maj. Cary's Reg't. for one month and 9 days on a secret expedition to Rhode Island beginning 30 Jul 1780. He was in the battle of Bunker Hill.

      Shortly before 1800, he accompanied to Maine a large group of settlers (more than 20 families), where he bought a farm of some 80 acres in Dillingham Hill for his son, David. In Oct 1798 he bought land in Poland, Maine in the Minot settlement. There he turned his attention to farming, and lived out the remainder of his life. (Poland was later renamed Minot.)

      Alexander's obituary appears in the Providence Gazette 10 Oct 1807. It reads:

      "Alexander at Minot, aged 72 years; was at the Plains of Abraham and one of six of his company that was left alive. In the conflict, he was badly wounded."

      The inscription on his tombstone reads:

      "Dear Jesus may this path to rest
      and in Thy love be ever blest
      that when the last loud trumpet sounds
      His praise then may still resound."

      Ref 2 says Alexander died prob. 5 Sep 1803.


      (1) Clan Munro files - Yard, F. L. Dixon - Correspondence with Prof. F. L.
      Dixon Yard 1991-1992 - p. 2

      (2) "The Monroe Book" by Dr. Joan S. Guilford - Franklin, North Carolina
      (1993) - p. 483-484

      The following is a biography of Alexander Munro written by John F. Hartley.

      Alexander Munro

      Alexander was born August 20, 1736 in Kilconquhar, Fife, the second son of James Munroe and Margaret Lindsay. His brothers were Robert baptized 24 Jul 1734, George baptized 10 Sep 1738, and Christian baptized 25 Jan 1741. This information is recorded in Mormon records in Salt Lake City, but clan historian R. H. Munro has no record of any of these names or dates.

      For this lack of verification, we can only now theorize that James and Margaret (if in fact these were the parents) at some point emigrated from the Munro Clan homeland, the Cromarty Firth environs some 120 miles southeast to Kilconquhar in County Fife.

      We know nothing about Alexander's early years, and we are even unable to substantiate the names of his parents, but since they were not members of royalty, clergy, or ranking military officers, we can only assume that they were of common lineage. They may have been farmers, dairy herders, or even in domestic service to the area gentry.

      Subsequent to Alexander's birth date, the next evidence of historical record is twenty-three years later when he either enlisted or was impressed into the English army, in the latter part of 1759. He became a foot soldier in a company of grenadiers in General James Wolfe's army. Reference has been made to his being an "ensign" with some kind of "commissary" responsibility in Wolfe's army, but these titles probably refer to another Alexander Munro who eventually found his way to Maryland.

      Archival records do confirm Alexander's service in Wolfe's army. The "Public Archives of Canada" in Ottawa, "Call Number RG4C2, Volume 1, microfilm reel C-10462," do confirm his rank as a Private in Captain John Nairn's Company, of the 78th Fraser Regiment.

      History also tells us that Wolfe's army proceeded up the St. Lawrence River from Louisbourg to a point just north of Quebec City, where on the morning of 13 Sep 1759, the troops ascended to the Plains of Abraham, and engaged the French under General Montcalm. Fifteen minutes after the two armies met, the Battle of Quebec was over - with the English victorious.

      Montcalm was killed on the field of battle. Wolfe was mortally wounded. Alexander was critically wounded by a bullet in the chest. From the Dictionary of National Biography Whichcord Volume XXI bottom of page 773 to top of page 774:

      "Wolfe went forward to some high ground on the right where he had an advanced post of the Louisbourg grenadiers much exposed to the enemy's sharpshooters. He had already been hit twice and there a third bullet struck him in the breast. With the help of two or three grenadiers, he walked about a hundred yards to the rear, and then had to lie down. 'Don't grieve for me," he said to one of them; 'I shall be happy in a few minutes. Take care of yourself as I see you are wounded.' He asked early how the battle went, and some officers who came up told him that the French had given way everywhere and were being pursued to the walls of the town. According to one eye witness, he raised himself up on this news and smiled in my face. 'Now,' said he, 'I die contented.' and from that instant, the smile never left his face till he died." (13 Sep 1759; English History Review, xii. 763)

      There are several different versions of Wolfe's last words, but history records that he was mortally wounded and was attended to on the field by two or three compatriots.

      Our Munroe folklore holds that Alexander was one of those two or three since he had taken a ball in the chest and certainly could have been that grenadier to whom Wolfe said "Take care of yourself as I see you are wounded."

      R. H. Munro notes that every MacIntosh and Campbell on the field that day claims to have been that grenadier.

      Another Munroe folklore, according to Horace Munroe, is that "Alexander got shot in the chest and didn't stop running until he reached Auburn." That makes a nice story, but it was about 200 miles from Quebec City to North Auburn, and the woods between those two points were teeming with hostile Frenchmen and Indians.

      That short battle on the Plains of Abraham effectively ended the French and Indian War, and French military and political presence in Canada. The war was officially ended on 10 Feb 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.

      But what of the English troops, and in particular Alexander, after that decisive battle? Being critically wounded, did he convalesce in a hospital in Quebec City and subsequently garrison there as part of an army of occupation, or was he transferred to a hospital in Boston, or returned back to Scotland with the other veterans for discharge there?

      The previously mentioned "Public Archives of Canada" partially give the answer to those questions. These archives also include a Discharge List dated Dec 1763, and Alexander is included among those dischargees from Captain Nairn's Company of the Fraser 78th.

      It is theorized that those men who were discharged at that time had asked to remain in the New World, while the remainder were returned to Scotland where they were subsequently discharged.

      But given two factors - that Alexander was critically wounded in the battle, and his discharge four years later ostensibly in Quebec, it seems reasonable to assume that he recovered in a hospital in or near Quebec City and that he may have remained there either on active or inactive service up to the time of his discharge.

      But after his discharge in December of 1763, we lose track of Alexander up until the 1771 Bridewater census. During that hiatus, did he remain in Quebec city? Probably not. Although French military and governmental dominance had ended, the culture was still strongly French, and this veteran might have found himself in an unfriendly environment. Not to mention a possible difficulty in finding employment for this non-French speaking Scotsman.

      Did he venture to Boston? Very possibly, yes. Boston at that time was still a Loyalist stronghold and he would have encountered a more friendly English environment - and probably a better opportunity for employment.

      Or did he find his way to Bridgewater where many of his Munro clans people had settled? Maybe. Maybe not. Even with any number of Munros there, there might have been some hostility toward a former English soldier. It should be noted that at that time, there were strong revolutionary stirrings among the colonists in the towns and areas surrounding Boston.

      All we know about this gap, is that he appeared on the 1771 tax rolls in Bridgewater. Whether he stayed in Quebec City, went to Boston, or to Bridgewater, remains - again a matter for conjecture.

      To digress a bit, we know his first wife's name was Mary McIntosh, but where and when they were married, also remains of conjecture. As to the place where they may have been married, it should be noted here that Alexander's family had at some point moved from the Cromarty Firth area to Kilconquhar in County Fife, and that Mary came from Borlum, also in County Fife, it is reasonable to assume that their relationship began in that county. (Both Kilconquhar and Borlum no longer appear on generally available maps, but County Fife still appears as a viable political entity.)

      But since daughter Mary was born in the same year (1758) that Alexander entered Wolfe's army, it is possible that he and Mary were married in Scotland prior to his shipping overseas with Wolfe's forces. Or - maybe they weren't married at all at that time.

      With a child on the way, it could have been Alexander's intent to complete his military obligation then send for Mary and the newborn child and start a new life in the New World. Again, conjecture.

      But the previously referenced "Public Archives of Canada" introduce another "conjecture." They also record five MacIntoshes in Captain Nairn's Company - three privates, along with an Elizabeth MacIntosh and a Mary MacIntosh, both of whom were listed as "laundresses," along with a Jane Munro.

      Could Elizabeth and Mary MacIntosh have been sisters? Could Mary have been Alexander's unwed wife and the mother of Mary (born 1758) whom they left back in Scotland with intent to send for later when they had established themselves in the New World?

      Again, a matter for conjecture. The MacIntosh Clan probably numbered into the thousands and it certainly would not have been impossible that Elizabeth and Mary MacIntosh were just unrelated laundresses attached as indentured servants to an army - just as the men had their "indentured" military service.

      But it is interesting to note here that the second and third children of Alexander and Mary MacIntosh were named Elizabeth and Mary, and that a daughter of Alexander and his second wife, Mary Hutchinson, was named - Jane Munro.

      The time and the place of the marriage of Alexander and Mary MacIntosh, the birth of their first daughter Mary, and the latter's arrival in the New World, and Alexander's whereabouts from 1763 to 1771 are questions that the researchers are unable to answer.

      But records do disclose that Mary and the three children - Nancy, Elizabeth and Mary - were baptized in Boston on 14 Apr 1771. Given this, we can assume that Alexander and his family lived in Boston sometime before the baptism date and for an indeterminate time thereafter.

      In any event, Alexander and his new family eventually found their way to Bridgewater, Massachusetts. That move occurred sometime after his discharge from the military and the 1771 tax rolls where his only property listed was a pig. And since no deed of property ownership can be found, we can only assume that he was a tenant farmer, possibly of the Dillinghams, both in Bridgewater, and later in Minot. Alexander's service in Quebec City was long behind him and the Bridgeport area was home to a number of his fellow clansmen. That coupled with the historical record that he joined the Massachusetts Militia fit him in well with the locals.

      His service with the Militia was brief and uneventful. Alice Munroe Dixon gives us the following narrative from her application to the Daughters of the American Revolution:

      "Alexander Munro, Private, Capt. Kingman's Co., Col. Edward Mitchell's Reg't. Service 16 days on the alarm at Rhode Island, 8 Dec 1776. Roll Endorsed. Alarm roll to Providence, Dec 1776. Also Sergeant, Capt. Nathan Snow's Co., Col. Hawes Reg't. Enlisted 24 Sep 1777. Service 1 month 9 days on a secret expedition to Rhode Island. Roll sworn at Plymouth. Also Capt. Nathan Alden's Co., Maj. Eliphalet Cary's Reg't. Marched 30 Jul 1780. Discharged 9 Aug 1780. Service 11 days. Company marched to Rhode Island on an alarm. The forgoing record found in Mass. Soldiers and Sailors in the War of the Revolution, Vol. XI, p 207. Alexander Munro was in battle of Bunker Hill. At 32 yrs. of age being one of a company of grenadiers he came to America at the time of the War between England and France. Was impressed to come. Served in wars eight years. He acted as Commissary under General Wolfe, ascended with him to the Heights of Abraham at Quebec. Was with General Wolfe when he fell and was one of the three who first lifted the wounded officer from the field. Tradition has it that he heard the words so memorable uttered by General Wolfe, "Then I die in peace."

      Alice Dixon, in making her application to the DAR, may have made some statements of emphasis or was simply relating what she had heard from her precedents. Alexander was probably not at the 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill. He was discharged from the military in 1736 and from that time up to the Bridgewater 1771 tax roll, we are unable to determine his whereabouts. If he had remained in Quebec City, his participation in that battle would have been improbable. Had he been in strongly Loyalist Boston, he certainly would not have been fighting with the revolutionaries.

      And had he found his way to Bridgewater by that time, he almost assuredly could not have been at Bunker Hill. Bridgewater was a good two days march distance from Breed's Hill, and given the exigent timing and the almost immediate response of the local militia, it is improbable that Alexander would have been able to arrive in time to participate in that battle.

      The "at 32 years of age," may have been a simple transposition of figures. Alexander was 23 years of age at the Battle of Quebec. It is also unlikely that Alexander was "impressed" into military service.

      The 1771 tax toll year, and the 1790 census do place Alexander and/or his family in Bridgewater. The latter lists him as a property owner (note that the tax roll year shows him as the owner of a pig. Nineteen years later, the census refers to "property owner; this could mean that he continued as a livestock owner, or that he had acquired real estate). This census lists him with a free white male over sixteen, a free white male under sixteen and seven white females. David was probably the male under sixteen, and the females, Alexander's second wife and the six daughters. Since daughter Elizabeth married in 1790, the male over sixteen may have been husband George Nichols.

      The 1790's brought change to the Bridgewater area. With the population expansion of the newly formed Massachusetts Bay Colony and its consequent taxation, groups of families started to move away. One Munroe group moved to New Hampshire. From Bridgewater, a number moved to the Poland, Cumberland County area, then a part of Massachusetts.

      We do not know exactly when Alexander arrived in Poland, but it was some time after the 1790 census and Oct 1798. The "Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder, Owners and Tenants of Poland, Maine, Oct 1798," Vol. I, p. 126 lists one "Elexander Monroe." (The "E" is apparently a recorded misspelling.) But what we do not know - was he a property owner or a tenant? Probably the latter.

      Alexander and his son, David were in Minot at least by the time the original deed to the Maple Hill Farm was signed.

      It is believed that Alexander and his family settled around the intersection of the present Maple Hill Road and Johnson Road.

      "Dik" Yard writes:

      "David was 22 when Alexander helped him buy the 100 acres which is now Maple Hill Farm, a vacant parcel of land. The nearest house was a log cabin on the north side of the present road just after the first turn to the right going uphill from the cemetery where Alexander is buried. At the present time, there is a house with a stone marker quite near the road with a brass plate indicating where John Dillingham had built his log home. Going backwards from the stone marker, there is an intersection. On the southwestern side of this intersection, there is a two story brick house called the Briggs Farm. I believe that it - or another house at that same location - was built by George Briggs who married David's sister Eunice.

      "At the time that David arrived in Minot, his half sisters, (Nancy, Elizabeth and Mary) were married and gone. Brother William Alexander was dead. Jennet would marry John Briggs in 1801. Eunice would marry George Briggs in about 1803. Adding this up, I find that Alexander, wife Mary, David and sister Jane arrived with the other two sisters. I think Alexander, David and George Briggs together built the brick house, lived there while building the Maple Hill house, and that David sold the fifteen acre parcel to his brother-in-law George Briggs, probably as soon as he could move into Maple Hill."

      It has been theorized that Alexander received a land grant from King George II in recognition of his military service at Quebec. But this seems improbably since the British evacuated Boston in 1776 and wielded no political or military authority since that time in the former colonies.

      In Minot, as in Bridgewater, there is no known record of property ownership by Alexander which leads us to believe that he was again a tenant farmer on land owned by the Dillinghams on what is today known as "Dillingham's Hill, as he may have been a tenant farmer on land in Bridgewater that was owned by the same Dillingham family.

      The 10 Oct 1807 Providence (Rhode Island) Gazette records his obituary:

      "Alexander Munro, at Minot, aged 72 years; was at the Plains of Abraham and one of six of his company that was left alive in that conflict and he was badly wounded."

      His headstone bears a quote from George Wishart:

      "Dear Jesus may this patriot rest
      and in thy love be ever blest
      That when the last loud trumpet sounds
      His praises then may still resound."

      Alexander - Impressed? or Volunteered? by John F. Hartley

      In order to answer this question, or at least better evaluate it, we need to better understand the political - and to a certain extent - the social situation of the time.

      The time was the 1740's in the Sottish Highlands. After literally eight centuries of internecine warfare and off-and-on warfare with England, the Scottish and English parliaments passed the "Act of Union" in 1707 which joined Scotland, England and Wales under one union. The Scots dissolved their parliament, but Scottish laws and the Presbyterian Church remained unchanged.

      Although Scotland and England were joined together in a union, it was not done without the objections of the fiercely nationalistic clans which continued their warfare with those other clans which supported the Crown.

      It should here be noted that Alexander was born into a clan not only with a long history of support of the kings of England, but with strong Protestant inclinations.

      When Alexander was ten years old, the Munro Clan along with other clans which were loyal to the Crown, joined with the English forces at the Battle of Falkirk against the "Jacobites" and those other Scottish clans which supported the House of Stuart.

      At that battle in Jan 1746, the nationalistic clans soundly defeated the English and their Scottish allies. I was James Wlofe, then a major, who was in command of the English troops and the loyal Scottish clans.

      Three months later, at the Battle of Culloden Moor, the English and the loyal Scots, with now numerically superior manpower, and artillery and muskets decisively defeated the rebellious Scots. Again, it was this Major Wolfe who was in charge of those Scots who were fighting on the side of the English.

      Alexander, at age ten, probably had heard of Wolfe's actions at the two preceding battles. He also must have known of the activities of the "Black Watch" which had been organized to suppress the power of the rebellious clans. And he must have known of the hatred of other clans against the Munros, Campbells, MacIntoshes and other clans which supported the English. The "Act of Union" had broken the power of the Jacobites and the nationalistic clans, but internecine warfare continued.

      As an historical note - and leading into Alexander's arrival in the New World - Major Wolfe continued his military activity by serving under Lord Geoffery Amherst at the successful Battle of Louisbourg, a French fortress on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.

      Given Wolfe's successes at Culloden Moor and Louisbourg, the then English Foreign Minister William Pitt could not have failed to notice. While Lord Amherst was given command of all English military forces in the New World, the newly promoted General Wolfe was summoned to return to England for the specific purpose of taking command of a military force intended for an anticipated assault on Quebec City, one of the two last significant French military strongholds in the northeast. (Montreal was the other.) "Pitt chose him to command the expedition then filling out against Quebec:" (France and England in North America, Vol II, Francis Parkman, page 1327)

      Part of that newly forming force would doubtlessly contain militia units and volunteers from the Sottish Highlands as a supplement to the regular troops. At that point in history, it should be noted that England was hard-pressed to raise and maintain military forces for its involvement in the Seven Years War which had grown from the European Germanic states and Russia, to the French and Indian Wars in the New World, and India. England had an insatiable need for troops!

      So for troop recruitment, what more logical place for Pitt to turn than to the Scotland - specifically the Highlands - which had joined England in the "Act of Union" only half a century earlier.

      Alexander was doubtlessly a prime candidate for this recruitment effort. His future in Scotland was not bright: no land or money to inherit as a second son - assuming there was something to inherit; and continued friction among those clans that supported the Crown and the nationalistic clans.
      He must have been aware of the number of his clansmen who had emigrated to the New World where opportunity existed. What better way for a young Scot to leave his futureless lot and find an eventual way to the American colonies than to join Wolfe's army. It was that or enter into an indenture as a domestic servant for seven years as a way to the Colonies. It was not much of a choice for a young twenty-three year old Scot.

      The overall situation argues for the fact that Alexander had some reason to want to volunteer for service, but we cannot overlook the possibility that Alexander may have been impressed into the army.

      Alice Munroe Dixon in her application to the Daughters of the American Revolution states, that he was "impressed to come." Alice probably heard this from her father James Munro Sr. who himself was only two generations removed from the subject of this question - Alexander.

      "Dik" Yard makes the point that there is no record in Scotland of Alexander being impressed into the army. The authorities may have kept records of those who enlisted, but for obvious reasons, they certainly would not keep records of those whom they had forcibly taken - if indeed there actually had been impressment. (Writer's note: Although there may be no records in Scotland, there may be in Kew Gardens in London where extensive military records are maintained.)

      In addition to Parkman's "France and England in North America," there are two other history books to which the writer has referred. They are: "The Rest to Fortune," by Robert Reilly, chapter XVII "The Great Opportunity," and "James Wolfe, Man and Soldier," by W. T. Waugh, chapter X, "One of Pitt's Men." Each of these three works contains a section specifically devoted to preparations for the anticipated Battle of Quebec.

      Each of these sections makes reference to appointment and selection of officers (Wolfe had complete authority over selection of his staff officers, but selection of line officers and troops remained with the War Office), recruitment of troops, regular troops and militia, the American irregulars as well as the fleet's departure from Portsmouth. But nowhere in all these pages is there any reference to "impressment."

      Given all the forgoing circumstances, it is my opinion that Alexander out of his own free will joined Wolfe's organizing army in an effort to separate himself from a bleak existence in Scotland and to seek out eventual opportunity in the New World.

      But history without facts leads to interpretation, so here, the reader is invited to make his or her own conclusion.

      Compiled and edited by Allen Alger, Genealogist, Clan Munro Association, USA [4, 5]

  • Sources 
    1. [S49] Clan Munro files - Hartley, John F., John F. Hartley, Alexander Munro - p. 1 (Reliability: 3).

    2. [S49] Clan Munro files - Hartley, John F., John F. Hartley, Cemeteries - p. 5 (Reliability: 3).

    3. [S49] Clan Munro files - Hartley, John F., John F. Hartley, Cemeteries - p. 6 (Reliability: 3).

    4. [S49] Clan Munro files - Hartley, John F., John F. Hartley, Alexander Munro (Reliability: 3).

    5. [S49] Clan Munro files - Hartley, John F., John F. Hartley, Alexander Impressed? or Volunteered? (Reliability: 3).